Marc Howard , a cognitive neuroscientist now at Boston University, and Karthik Shankar , who was then one of his postdoctoral students, wanted to figure out a mathematical model of time processing: a neurologically computable function for representing the past, like a mental canvas onto which the brain could paint memories and perceptions.
(It affects about 1 percent of human men and a far smaller fraction of women; the more common form of red-green colorblindness, a mutation called "deuteranopia" in the cone that senses greenish, medium-wavelength light is a little more common—like 6 percent of men.) The implication of all those likewise-envisioned brothers was that Daltonism somehow ran in families—though Darwin’s Origin of Species and the concept of evolution were still six decades in the future.
In 1989, computer scientists proved that if a neural network has only a single computational layer, but you allow that one layer to have an unlimited number of neurons, with unlimited connections between them, the network will be capable of performing any task you might ask of it.
Most work on 3D bio-printing is done in culture dishes, but this experiment was unique in that the team was able to do this in laboratory rats, and because the lab-grown cells then successfully bridged the gap of a cut spinal cord and partially restored movement to the animal's hind quarters.
I think we’re going to have to do it like you would for people: You just see how they perform, and if they repeatedly run into difficulties then you say they’re not so good.WIRED: You’ve said that thinking about how the brain works inspires your research on artificial neural networks.
As far as I can tell, no one has done rigorous tests.In 2012, hangover research experienced what felt at the time like a breakthrough. It’ll help slow the progress of the alcohol through your guts, and maybe even dilute the booze’s effect on your GI tract.
According to the most popular modern Bayesian account, the brain is an “inference engine” that seeks to minimize “prediction error.”In 2001, Hinton left London for the University of Toronto, where he became one of the most important figures in artificial intelligence, laying the groundwork8 for much of today’s research in deep learning.8 In 2012, Hinton won the ImageNet Challenge, a competition to identify objects in a 15-million-image database built by Fei-Fei Li. ImageNet helped propel neural networks—and Hinton—to the forefront of AI.Before Hinton left, however, Friston visited his friend at the Gatsby one last time.
Sequencing technologies, for one, can reveal how cells with the same exact DNA turn their genes on or off in unique ways—and these methods are beginning to reveal that the brain is a more diverse forest of bristling nodes and branching energies than even Ramón y Cajal could have imagined.On Monday, an international team of researchers introduced the world to a new kind of neuron, which, at this point, is believed to exist only in the human brain.