(It affects about 1 percent of human men and a far smaller fraction of women; the more common form of red-green colorblindness, a mutation called "deuteranopia" in the cone that senses greenish, medium-wavelength light is a little more common—like 6 percent of men.) The implication of all those likewise-envisioned brothers was that Daltonism somehow ran in families—though Darwin’s Origin of Species and the concept of evolution were still six decades in the future.
Indeed, a lot of what people were talking about last week—Melania Trump's verion of "you're fired" and pro wrestling debacles aside—were events set in motion at various points in the past.
The calls have not stopped since.Allison’s breakthrough was the discovery of a sort of secret handshake that cancer uses to evade the immune system, and a means to block that handshake—what the Nobel committee hailed as “a landmark in our fight against cancer,” which has “revolutionized cancer treatment, fundamentally changing the way we view how cancer can be managed.” (Allison’s co-recipient was Tasuku Honjo of Kyoto University.) Advances in cancer typically come in 50-year increments; the science that Allison and Honjo helped advance, cancer immunotherapy, has made a generational leap seemingly overnight.Adapted from The Breakthrough: Immunotherapy and the Race to Cure Cancer by Charles Graeber.
Instead, the cells of the damaged tissue turn the clock back all the way to a more fetal state, tapping into the proliferative power that once characterized development — and a program thought to have long gone silent.Atom Bombs and Self-Renewing CellsIn the early 1900s, scientists theorized that the specific blood cell types they’d learned to distinguish from one another under a microscope — red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets — came from a common, more primitive source: a stem cell.
In a previous blog, I used the metaphor of marriage to explore the dynamic of public-private partnerships (PPPs) as relationships created between two parties with often very different expectations and methods of communication.
Sequencing technologies, for one, can reveal how cells with the same exact DNA turn their genes on or off in unique ways—and these methods are beginning to reveal that the brain is a more diverse forest of bristling nodes and branching energies than even Ramón y Cajal could have imagined.On Monday, an international team of researchers introduced the world to a new kind of neuron, which, at this point, is believed to exist only in the human brain.