The Indian Space Research Organization hasn’t yet confirmed if the Vikram lander was destroyed upon impact, but the lack of communication from the lander is a troubling sign. If the lander did not survive the impact, India would be the second country to lose a lunar lander this year. In April, the Israeli Beresheet lunar lander also failed just before touchdown and was destroyed.The loss of the Vikram lander and the Pragyan rover it was carrying to the lunar surface would be a big blow for India’s space program. The Chandrayaan-2 program has been a decade in the making and was India’s most ambitious space mission yet.
But all is not lost for the mission. More than half of the scientific instruments it carried to the moon are safe on the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, which will spend the next year mapping the lunar surface and studying the deposits of water ice at the south pole. Planetary scientists are particularly interested in this region of the moon because it is believed to be rich in water ice. In principle, this means it can be used for life support and manufacturing rocket fuel, which is arguably the main reason why NASA is planning to send astronauts to the lunar south pole in 2024.
The Beresheet lander is a joint venture between Israeli nonprofit SpaceIL —one of the participants in the Google Lunar X Prize, which challenged private companies to land spacecraft on the moon without government funds—and Israel Aerospace Industries, the country's largest aerospace and defense company.
With any luck, India’s Vikram lander will be there to greet them. But if not, the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter can still provide valuable data that will build a foundation for future human missions to the lunar south pole. And hey, at least it didn’t spill any tardigrades .
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