Mina is one of countless Iranians in the US who have tried to contact friends and family members in Iran amid a nationwide internet shutdown that has lasted six days so far. She asked that her last name be withheld out of fear of repercussions for her relatives there.The unrest began last week, when the Iranian government declared its intention to cut fuel subsidies and increase the cost of gasoline. The decree sparked demonstrations in more than 100 cities across Iran, where the country’s 80 million citizens have already struggled for years under crippling US sanctions.
Places like Ethiopia that have relatively limited internet proliferation typically have just one government-controlled internet service provider, perhaps alongside some smaller private ISPs. But all usually gain access from a single undersea cable or international network node, creating "upstream" choke points that officials can use to essentially block a country's connectivity at its source.
On Saturday, as dramatic scenes began to spread online—images of widespread looting, protesters chanting against and kicking down signs of Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei and President Hasan Rouhani, and security forces violently turning against demonstrators—the Iranian regime instituted an internet and mobile data blackout in an attempt to suppress protests and prevent those outside of Iran from paying attention to the unrest.As of Wednesday morning, NetBlocks, a group that tracks internet access across the world, reported that “90 hours after #Iran implemented a near-total internet shutdown, connectivity continues to flatline at just 5 percent of ordinary levels.”
The organization eventually hopes to allow users to view and borrow every book cited by Wikipedia, with the ultimate goal being to digitize every book ever published.“Our goal is to be a library that’s useful and reachable by more people,” says Mark Graham, director of the Internet Archive's Wayback Machine service.
The internet shutdown has only heightened the sense of fear among Iranians in America, as they attempt to circumvent the blackout to contact their families and friends. On Monday morning, after a second night of worry and little sleep, Mina took to Twitter to solicit advice. “How are folks calling to check on family/friends in Iran? Please comment below,” she wrote.Several users chimed in with suggestions or to share their frustrations. A few seemed to have luck using Skype credits to call landlines inside Iran.
Gary Richards, founder of OneRoom, a company that offers livestreaming services to funeral directors in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and the US, says he’s noticed that many of the families that use his service are recent immigrants from the Philippines, Vietnam, or India, who are looking for a way to connect with family and friends from back home.
Assal Rad, a research fellow at the National Iranian American Council, says that after days of frantically trying to contact people through messaging apps like WhatsApp and Telegram, she was able to use $5 of Skype credits to speak to a friend for 25 minutes. (Disclosure: I previously worked for NIAC but left in 2017.)