Shocking precisely no one who has been paying attention to the facts, the IG report finds in broad strokes that the FBI’s investigation of Trump’s campaign in 2016 was properly predicated, opened under correct evidentiary procedures, and conducted lawfully. Horowitz did find at least 17 violations of various Justice Department procedures—relating to FISA surveillance applications for Trump campaign adviser Carter Page —but nothing that would give credence to the Trump's long-running grievance that the entirety of the US government was out to get him in 2016.
Instead, Horowitz concludes, the FBI was rightly troubled by the signals it picked up in 2016 that Russia had nefarious designs on that year’s presidential election. The FBI had an “authorized purpose” to launch the investigation, Horowitz says, which was briefed to bureau leaders and designated a “sensitive investigative matter.” The FBI’s use of confidential sources was appropriate, and there is no “documentary or testimonial evidence that political bias or improper motivation” played a role in the case. One by one, Horowitz undermines the key conspiracy talking points of Trumpland—including that Trump campaign aide George Papadopoulos was approached by a CIA plant.
That said, Horowitz does find the numerous failures in the Page surveillance applications troubling enough to merit a review of the FBI’s FISA procedures more broadly. “Although some of the factual misstatements and omissions we found in this review were arguably more significant than others, we believe that all of them taken together resulted in FISA applications that made it appear that the information supporting probable cause was stronger than was actually the case,” the report states.
Perhaps more than anything, the IG report concludes that the FBI’s Crossfire Hurricane investigation was beset by the normal problems of government, large bureaucracies, and team projects, more incompetence and rushed work than conspiracy. At multiple junctures, Horowitz’s report stresses that the errors it found were accidental rather than malicious—although, he argues, that should be no excuse.
“That so many basic and fundamental errors were made by three separate, hand-picked teams on one of the most sensitive FBI investigations that was briefed to the highest levels within the FBI, and that FBI officials expected would eventually be subjected to close scrutiny, raised significant questions regarding the FBI chain of command's management and supervision of the FISA process,” the report says.But the IG report also paints a picture of an agency that stopped short of investigative steps that, in hindsight, would seem necessarily and obvious. The FBI did not ultimately pursue FISA surveillance on three Trump aides—Papadopoulos, campaign chair Paul Manafort, and retired general Michael Flynn—all of whom would later become key figures in special counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation . If anything, it seems the FBI should have investigated harder than it did.