The race is on for a Covid-19 vaccine , but the pace is less hare and more tortoise. And necessarily so: Developing a vaccine that’s both effective and safe is grueling, methodical work.“When experts optimistically say that they expect a Covid-19 vaccine by the end of 2020, they’re talking about an emergency use authorized vaccine, not a fully-approved one,” says Dr. Seema Yasmin, director of the Stanford Health Communication Initiative.No one can say for sure when a Covid-19 vaccine might arrive , because vaccine development is broken into several stages, each with a highly variable timeline. “But here’s a comparison,” Yasmin says. “The fastest vaccine we previously developed was for mumps, and that took four years to develop. And typically it takes 10 to 15 years to develop a vaccine. So 12 to 18 months would be record-breaking.”
Now, about those stages. The first is the exploratory phase, in which drug companies tinker with different approaches. With Covid-19, for instance, some drugmakers are trying to develop a nucleotide-based vaccine, which uses the virus’s genetic code instead of its proteins. Typically, the exploratory phase could take two to four years, though new technologies are speeding up the progress. Also, this novel coronavirus is similar to the first SARS virus, so that may give researchers a head start.
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Haller believes in vaccines, which is why he volunteered to test three different influenza vaccines that weren’t yet approved by the Food and Drug Administration—including against H7N9, a strain of influenza seen as a plausible source of the next pandemic.“I know how much misery they prevent in the world,” says Haller, an associate professor of pediatrics at Saint Louis University School of Medicine.
Next comes the preclinical stage, in which a vaccine candidate is tested in cell cultures and animals to see if it triggers an immune response. “If there’s no immune response or the vaccine is causing harm to cells, then it’s back to square one, the exploratory stage,” says Yasmin. “The reality is there’s no way to speed up this stage, and it will probably take at least a year.”
But if all goes well, the candidate heads to clinical trials. The experimental vaccine is given to a small group of people, then a bigger group, then an even bigger group, typically in an outbreak area. This series of tests can take years to complete. Some bioethicists have recently proposed that the Covid-19 pandemic is so serious that so-called “challenge trials ” should be considered to accelerate the process. In a challenge trial, researchers would intentionally infect the people they vaccinate in a controlled environment to see if the drug is effective. No such studies have been authorized yet.
The next stage is regulatory review, in which the manufacturer submits an application for a license to produce the vaccine. In the US, this typically takes 10 months and is authorized through the Food and Drug Administration, though it’s virtually a given that regulators will speed up the approval of a Covid-19 vaccine.
It’s a first step toward an eventual goal of a fully automated robotic guillotine, which could help Sanaria produce that elusive mass-produced, effective malaria vaccine. Sanaria’s vaccine, called PfSPZ, is thought to work by inducing killer T cells to attack the parasites in the human body as they’re developing in the liver.
But we aren’t done yet. Scaling up production—for instance, building manufacturing facilities—can take years and hundreds of millions of dollars. The production of any Covid-19 vaccine will of course be fast-tracked, but drugmakers will still need to produce enough materials to vaccinate billions of people.
To learn more about the race for a Covid-19 vaccine, check out our video with Yasmin above.WIRED is providing free access to stories about public health and how to protect yourself during the coronavirus pandemic . Sign up for our Coronavirus Update newsletter for the latest updates, and subscribe to support our journalism .More From WIRED on Covid-19
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Since then, the disease known as Covid-19 has swept into 72 countries , infecting nearly 93,000 people and killing more than 3,000.What makes the coronavirus scary enough to cause a worldwide run on face masks and lead countries to lock down whole megacities and ban travelers isn’t that it’s super deadly.