A historic slow-moving flood of polluted Mississippi River water loaded with chemicals, pesticides, and human waste from 31 states and two Canadian provinces is draining straight into the marshes and bayous of the Gulf of Mexico —the nurseries of Arnesen’s fishing grounds—upsetting the delicate balance of salinity and destroying the fragile ecosystem in the process.
“These offshore CO2 storage facilities are probably a reasonable idea because the benefits of storing 1 million tons per year of carbon are larger than the effects of the leakage that may occur,” says Klaus Wallmann, professor of marine biogeochemistry at the GEOMAR Center for Ocean Research in Kiel, Germany, and an author of the report.
At age 22, in 1994, he learned to dive, then became an instructor so he could do it all the time—eventually plunging in waters as far as the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean, and the South China Sea. Those countless hours spent underwater, just for the love of it, now inform his approach as a photographer.
The resulting analysis shows – for the first time – that the cost effectiveness of nature-based (green), artificial (gray) and policy solutions (like regulations) for reducing risk from storms and sea level rise can be directly compared – quantitatively – (apples to apples, so to speak) to one another across a region as large as the Gulf of Mexico.